Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions, and one of the plastic arts. Sculptural processes include carving (the removal of material) and modelling (the addition of material, as clay), in stone, metal, ceramics, wood and other materials. Much of erstwhile sculptural work was in stone, the greatest example being temple architecture in India and also a lot of surviving works from other ancient cultures too.
Modernism revolutionized sculpture the most; bringing in complete freedom of materials and processes. A wide variety of materials may be used for creating sculptures. Harder materials may be chiseled, carved or welded; while pliable materials can be modeled, molded, or cast.